Costa Rica has about 4 million inhabitants and an annual growth rate of about 2%. About 60% live around San José and in the central highlands.

There are 75 people per square kilometer, which is the third highest in Central America. The majority of the population is mestizo, of European and indigenous heritage. The Caribbean region has a large percentage of African descendants which make up about 2% of the total population and originate from the Jamaican workers that came to work on the railroad in the late 19 th century.

They were actively discriminated against in the beginning of the 20th century and didn't earn equal rights until the new constitution of 1949. About 60,000 people are of indigenous heritage, which is not even 2% of the population. Most are living in the area of Talamanca on the southeastern coast or in any other of the 22 Indigenous Reserves that exist in the country. Additionally, about 1% of the population is North Americans, Europeans and Chinese that have decided to settle in the country, attracted to the Costa Rican lifestyle and culture.